Via The Lancet Infectious Diseases: Epidemiological features of and changes in incidence of infectious diseases in China in the first decade after the SARS outbreak: an observational trend study. The summary:
The model of infectious disease prevention and control changed significantly in China after the outbreak in 2003 of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but trends and epidemiological features of infectious diseases are rarely studied. In this study, we aimed to assess specific incidence and mortality trends of 45 notifiable infectious diseases from 2004 to 2013 in China and to investigate the overall effectiveness of current prevention and control strategies.
Incidence and mortality data for 45 notifiable infectious diseases were extracted from a Chinese public health science data centre from 2004 to 2013, which covers 31 provinces in mainland China. We estimated the annual percentage change in incidence of each infectious disease using joinpoint regression.
Between January, 2004, and December, 2013, 54 984 661 cases of 45 infectious diseases were reported (average yearly incidence 417·98 per 100 000). The infectious diseases with the highest yearly incidence were hand, foot, and mouth disease (114·48 per 100 000), hepatitis B (81·57 per 100 000), and tuberculosis (80·33 per 100 000). 132 681 deaths were reported among the 54 984 661 cases (average yearly mortality 1·01 deaths per 100 000; average case fatality 2·4 per 1000).
Overall yearly incidence of infectious disease was higher among males than females and was highest among children younger than 10 years. Overall yearly mortality was higher among males than females older than 20 years and highest among individuals older than 80 years. Average yearly incidence rose from 300·54 per 100 000 in 2004 to 483·63 per 100 000 in 2013 (annual percentage change 5·9%); hydatid disease (echinococcosis), hepatitis C, and syphilis showed the fastest growth. The overall increasing trend changed after 2009, and the annual percentage change in incidence of infectious disease in 2009–13 (2·3%) was significantly lower than in 2004–08 (6·2%).
Although the overall incidence of infectious diseases was increasing from 2004, the rate levelled off after 2009. Effective prevention and control strategies are needed for diseases with the highest incidence—including hand, foot, and mouth disease, hepatitis B, and tuberculosis—and those with the fastest rates of increase (including hydatid disease, hepatitis C, and syphilis).